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The city exported meat, wool, wine, fruit and wheat by the time Grey left in 1845, contrasting with a low point in 1842 when one-third of Adelaide houses were abandoned.Trade links with the rest of the Australian states were established with the Murray River being successfully navigated in 1853 by Francis Cadell, an Adelaide resident.In 1860 the Thorndon Park reservoir was opened, finally providing an alternative water source to the now turbid River Torrens.Gas street lighting was implemented in 1867, the University of Adelaide was founded in 1874, the South Australian Art Gallery opened in 1881 and the Happy Valley Reservoir opened in 1896.Gawler was recalled and replaced by Governor Grey in 1841.Grey slashed public expenditure against heavy opposition, although its impact was negligible at this point: silver was discovered in Glen Osmond that year, agriculture was well underway, and other mines sprung up all over the state, aiding Adelaide's commercial development.Drought and poor harvests from 1884 compounded the problems, with some families leaving for Western Australia.
The value of South Australia's exports nearly halved.
In July 1876, the Illustrated Sydney News published a special supplement that included an early aerial view of the City of Adelaide, the River Torrens and portion of North Adelaide from a point above Pennington Terrace, North Adelaide.
South Australia was officially proclaimed as a British colony on 28 December 1836, near The Old Gum Tree in what is now the suburb of Glenelg North.
Adelaide stretches 20 km (12 mi) from the coast to the foothills, and 94 to 104 km (58 to 65 mi) from Gawler at its northern extent to Sellicks Beach in the south.
Named in honour of Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen, queen consort to King William IV, the city was founded in 1836 as the planned capital for a freely-settled British province in Australia.In the 1890s Australia was affected by a severe economic depression, ending a hectic era of land booms and tumultuous expansionism.